Multicultural-Related Resources

List of Suggested Resources by Respondents to the AOTA Multicultural Issues Survey of Academic Programs

Most Frequently Mentioned Resources

Bonder, B., Martin, L., & Miracle, A.W. (2002). Culture in clinical care. Thorofare, NJ: Slack.

Salimbene, S. (2002). What language does your patient hurt in? A practical guide to culturally competent patient care. Rockford, IL: Inter-Face International, Inc.

Wells, S. A. (1994). Multicultural education and resource guide for occupational therapy educators and practitioners. Rockville, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Wells, S. A., & Black, R. M. (2000). Cultural competency for health professionals. Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Additional Print Resources

American Medical Association. (1999). Cultural competence compendium. Chicago: Author.

Bailey, D. (2000). Introducing an awareness of cultural diversity into an established curriculum. In P. A. Crist (Ed.), Innovations in Occupational Therapy Education 2000 (pp. 134-1450. Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

Barney, K. F. (1991). From Ellis Island to assisted living: Meeting the needs of older adults from diverse cultures. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45(7), 586-593.

Borg, B., & Bruce, M. A. (1997). Occupational therapy stories. Psychosocial interaction in practice. Thorofare, NJ: Slack.

Brookfield, S. (1987). Developing critical thinkers: Challenging adults to explore alternative ways of thinking and acting. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Cena, L., McGruder, J., & Tomlin, G. (2002). Representations of race, ethnicity, and social class in case examples in The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 56(2), 130-139.

Christiansen, C. H., & Baum, C. (1997). Occupational therapy: Enabling function and well being (2nd ed.). Thorofare, NJ: Slack.

Clinton, J. F. (1996). Cultural diversity and health care in America: Knowledge fundamental to cultural competence in baccalaureate nursing students. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 3(1), 4-8.

Cranton, P. (1994). Understanding and promoting transformative learning: A guide for educators of adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Davis, C. M. (1994). Patient practitioner interaction: An experiential manual for developing the art of health care (2nd ed.). Thorofare, NJ: Slack.

Davis, F. J. (2001). Who is black?: One nation's definition. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Derman-Sparks, L. (Ed.). (1989). Anti-bias curriculum: Tools for empowering young children. Washington, D C: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Dowling, J. S. & Coppens, N. M. (1996). Understanding culture and health practices through an experiential learning project. Nurse Educator, 21(6), 43-46.

Eddy, R. (1996). Reflections on multiculturalism. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

Evans, J. (1992). Nationally speaking: What occupational therapists can do to eliminate racial barriers to health care access. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 46(8), 679-683.

Fadiman, A. (1998). The spirit catches you and you fall down. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. NewYork. Story of the Hmong (Laotian) people trying to acclimate to the United States.

Fitzgerald, M. H. & Mullavey-O’Byrne, C. (1996). Analysis of student definitions of culture. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 14(1), 67-89.

Fitzgerald, M. H., Mullavey-O’Byrne, C., Twible, R., & Kinébanian, A. (1995). Exploring cultural diversity: A workshop manual for occupational therapists. Sydney: School of Occupational Therapy, The University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences Australia.

Galanti, G. (1997). Caring for patients from different cultures: Case studies from American hospitals. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Gardenswartz, L. & Rowe, A. (1998), Managing diversity: A Complete Desk Reference and Planning Guide. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gaw, A. C. (2001). Concise guide to cross-cultural psychiatry. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Giger, J. N., & Davidhizar, R. E. (1999). Transcultural nursing: Assessment and intervention (3rd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Grooper, R. (1996). Culture and the clinical encounter. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

Hall, E. T. (1989). Beyond culture. New York: Anchor Press.

Halloran, P., & Lowenstein, N. (2000). Case studies through the health care continuum. Thorofare, NJ: Slack.

Harns, P. C., & Moran, R. (1996). Managing cultural differences (4th ed.). Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing.

Helman, C. G. (1997). Culture, health and illness: An introduction for health professionals. Boston: Butterworth Heinemann.

Henkle, J. O. & Kennerly, S. M. (1990). Cultural diversity: A resource in planning and implementing nursing care. Public Health Nursing, 7(3), 145-149.

Huttlinger, K., Krefting, L., Drevdahl, D., Tree, P., Baca, E., & Benally, E. (1992). "Doing battle": A metaphorical analysis of diabetes mellitus among Navajo people. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 46(8), 706-712.

Julia, M. C. & Burgos-Ocasio, H. (1996). Multicultural Awareness in the Health Care Professions. Newton, Ma: Allyn and Bocor.

Krefting, L. & Krefting, D. (1991). Cultural influences on performance. In C. Christiansen & C. Baum (Eds.), Overcoming human occupational performance deficits (pp. 101-122). Thorofare, NJ: Slack.

Law, M. (1998). Client centered care. Thorofare, NJ: Slack.

Leavitt, R. L. (1999). Cross-cultural rehabilitation: An international perspective. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Lipson, J. G., Dibble, S. L., & Minarik, P. A. (1996). Culture and nursing care: A pocket guide. San Francisco: UCSF Nursing Press.

Lockhart, J. S. & Resick, L. K. (1997). Teaching cultural competence: The value of experiential learning and community resources. Nurse Educator, 22(3), 27-31.

Lohman, H., Padilla, R., & Byers-Connon, S. (1998). Occupational therapy with elders-- Strategies for the COTA. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Luckmann, J. (2000). Transcultural communication in healthcare. Albany, NY: Delmar- Thomas Learning.

Lynch, E. W., & Hanson, M. J. (1998). Developing cross-cultural competence. Baltimore: Brookes.

MacDonald, R. (1998). What is cultural competency? British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 325-328.

MacDonald, R. & Rowe, N. (1995). Minority ethnic groups an occupational therapy, Part 2: Transcultural occupational therapy, a curriculum for today’s therapist. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 58, 286-290.

Mihesuah, D. (1996). American Indians: Stereotypes & realities. Atlanta, GA: Clarity Press.

Miller, N. B., & Sammons, C. C. (1999). Everybody's different. Baltimore: Brookes.

Mutba, S. (2002). Toward culturally competent care: Toolbox for teaching communcation strategies. San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of California.

Padilla, R., & Brown, K. (1999). Culture and patient education: Challenges & opportunities. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 13(3), 23-30.

Peters, C. (1992). Developing a course in international occupational therapy. Education Special Interest Section Quarterly, 2(4), 3-4.

Pinderhughes, E. (1989). Understanding race, ethnicity, and power: The key to efficacy in clinical practice. New York: Free Press.

Scott, R. (1997). Investigation of cross-cultural practice. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64, 89-96.

Seelye, H. N. (Ed.). (1996). Experiential activities for intercultural learning. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

Sleeter, C. & Grant, C.A. (1994) Making choices for multicultural education: five approaches to race, class, and gender. (2nd ed). New York: MacMillan Publishing Company.

Slifkin, R.T., Goldsmith, L.J., & Rickerts, T.C. (2000). Race and place: Urban-rural differences in health for racial and ethnic minorities. The University of North Carolina.

Spector, R. E. (2000). Cultural diversity in health and illness (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Sue, D. W. & Sue, D. (1990). Counseling the culturally different. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Summerfield, E. (1993). Crossing culture through film. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

Tiedt, P.L. & Tiedt, I.M. (1999). Multicultural teaching: a handbook of activities, information, and resources.(5thEd) Newton, MA:.Allyn and Bacon.

Trombly, C. A., & Radomski, M.V. (Eds.). (2002). Occupational therapy for physical dysfunction. (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Turnbull, A. P., & Turnbull, H. R., III. (1997). Families, professionals, and exceptionality. Columbus, OH: Merrill. (Chapter 5, Family Characteristics; Chapter 6, Family Interaction; Chapter 7, Family Functions)

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). National standards for culturally and linguistically appropriate services in health care, final report. Retrieved November 17, 2003, from

Wells, S. (1994). A multicultural education and resource guide for occupational therapy educators and practitioners. Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

Wells, S. (1996). Cultural competence: Preparing for the next millennium. College of Occupational Therapists 20th Annual Conference, University of Leeds, England.

Wongsaroj, A. A. (2000). Cultural awareness and knowledge in an occupational therapy curriculum. Master’s thesis, Tufts University.

Yuen, H. K. & Yau, M. K. (1999). Cross cultural awareness and occupational therapy education. Occupational Therapy International, 6(1), 24-34.

Note: Many of the books on this list are available from


Videotape series, "Childhood-The House of Tomorrow."
Puberty marks the onset of major physiological changes. This program looks at the end of childhood and the almost infinitely varied rites of passage. Ambrose Video Publications. New York.

"The Color of Fear"
In the documentary film a group of men at a weekend retreat engage in an open and candid dialogue on race and ethnicity.

"Working Like Crazy"
Challenges stereotypes. This is a fresh, engaging look at the struggles and victories of six former mental health patients. Though once labeled "unemployable," they now work in businesses run and staffed by other psychiatric survivors.
Rent/buy at

"When Billy Broke His Head and Other Tales of Wonder." (1994). This autobiographical documentary takes a surprisingly funny, innovative, but realistic look at the political obstacles faced by America's disabled.
Rent/buy at


Most of these are available for rent.

The Joy Luck Club
Finding Forrester
What's Eating Gilbert Grape?
Eye of the Beholder
The Horse Whisperer

Online Resources

HACU (Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities) HACU promotes the development of member colleges and universities, and improves access to and the quality of postsecondary educational opportunities for Hispanic students.

KFF (Kaiser Family Foundation) In an effort to address the racial inequities in health care that exist today, KFF brought together leading public and private sector policymakers to review the evidence in race and medical care and discuss what can be done to address these inequities.

National Multicultural Institute is a good resource for materials.
3000 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 438, Washington, DC 20008-2556

NCCC (National Center for Cultural Competence) NCCC strives to increase the capacity of health care programs to design, implement, and evaluate culturally competent service delivery systems.

NHGRI (The National Human Genome Research Institute) has a Spanish "Talking Glossary of Genetics." Those seeking a better understanding of recent advances in genetics and genomics can benefit from this free, innovative combination of text, illustrations, and audio commentary. Students, teachers, and health professionals will find easy-to-understand explanations of key genetics terms.

NWHIC (National Women's Health Information Center) NWHIC is a one-stop gateway for women seeking health information. NWHIC is a free information and resource service on women's health issues designed for consumers, health care professionals, researchers, educators, and students.

Office of Interprofessional Scholarship, Service, and Education - Creighton University 

OMH-RC (Office of Minority Health Resource Center) OMH-RC serves as a national resource and referral service on minority health issues.

SACNAS (The Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science) SACNAS is a diverse society with a vested interest in promoting opportunities in graduate science education for Chicano/Latino, Native American, and other students.